2 Tagset

(Author: Adam Przepiórkowski; modified: 2 October 2011)

Each morphosyntactic tag is a sequence of colon-separated values, e.g.: subst:sg:nom:m1 for the segment chłopiec ‘boy’. The first value, e.g., subst, determines the grammatical class (cf. §2.2), while the values that follow it, e.g., sg, nom and m1, are the values of grammatical categories (cf. §2.1) appropriate for that grammatical class.

2.1 Grammatical categories

The following table presents the repertoire of grammatical categories used in the National Corpus of Polish:

Number: (2 values)
singular sg oko
plural pl oczy
Case: (7 values)
nominative nom woda
genitive gen wody
dative dat wodzie
accusative acc wodę
instrumental inst wodą
locative loc wodzie
vocative voc wodo
Gender: (5 values)
human masculine (virile)m1 papież, kto, wujostwo
animate masculine m2 baranek, walc, babsztyl
inanimate masculine m3 stół
feminine f stuła
neuter n dziecko, okno, co, skrzypce, spodnie
Person: (3 values)
first pri bredzę, my
second sec bredzisz, wy
third ter bredzi, oni
Degree: (3 values)
positive pos cudny
comparative com cudniejszy
superlative sup najcudniejszy
Aspect: (2 values)
imperfective imperf iść
perfective perf zajść
Negation: (2 values)
affirmative aff pisanie, czytanego
negative neg niepisanie, nieczytanego
Accentability: (2 values)
accented (strong) akc jego, niego, tobie
non-accented (weak) nakc go, -ń, ci
Post-prepositionality: (2 values)
post-prepositional praep niego, -ń
non-post-prepositional npraepjego, go
Accommodability: (2 values)
agreeing congr dwaj, pięcioma
governing rec dwóch, dwu, pięciorgiem
Agglutination: (2 values)
non-agglutinative nagl niósł
agglutinative agl niosł-
Vocalicity: (2 values)
vocalic wok -em
non-vocalic nwok -m
Fullstoppedness: (2 values)
with full stop pun tzn
without full stop npun wg

2.2 Grammatical classes

The scope of traditional parts of speech such as verb, noun, numeral or pronoun is fuzzy and, hence, controversial. For example, are gerundial forms such as picie ‘drinking’ and palenie ‘smoking’ verbs (they have the category of aspect and they are productively related to verbal forms such as pić ‘to drink’ and palić ‘to smoke’), or are they nouns (they decline for case, and they have the lexical category of gender)? Are ordinal numerals such as piąty ‘fifth’ numerals (semantically, they are numerals), or are they adjectives (they have adjectival inflection)? Are adjectival pronouns such as taki ‘such’ pronouns (semantics) or adjectives (inflection)?

Grammatical classes used in the National Corpus of Polish are more precisely delimited and, overall, finer-grained than traditional parts of speech. The classes assumed here are based on the notion of flexeme, narrower than the notion of lexeme.

The following table contains the rough morphosyntactic characteristics of all flexemic classes assumed in the present tagset. The symbol in the table means that, for a given flexemic class, a given grammatical category is a morphological category (flexemes belonging to this class normally inflect for that category), while the symbol means that the category is a lexical category (for each flexeme belonging to this class, all forms of that flexeme have the same value of that category, although that value may differ between flexemes, as in the case of the gender of nouns).

depreciative form
main numeral
collective numeral
ad-adj. adjective
post-prep. adjective
predicative adjective
pronoun (non-3rd person)
pronoun (3rd person)
pronoun siebie
non-past form
future być
agglut. być
imperative form
impersonal form
adv. contemp. prtcp.
adv. anter. prtcp.
adj. act. prtcp.
adj. pass. prtcp.
winien-like verb
coord. conjunction
subord. conjunction
bound word
unknown form

The following table provides the information about base forms for all grammatical classes, as well as the abbreviations of these classes as used in the National Corpus of Polish.

flexeme abbreviationbase form example
noun subst singular nominative profesor
depreciative form depr singular nominative form of the corresponding noun profesor
main numeral num inanimate masculine nominative form pięć, dwa
collective numeral numcol inanimate masculine nominative form of the main numeral pięć, dwa
adjective adj singular nominative masculine positive form polski
ad-adjectival adjective adja singular nominative masculine positive form of the adjectivepolski
post-prepositional adjective adjp singular nominative masculine positive form of the adjectivepolski
predicative adjectiveadjc singular nominative masculine positive form of the adjectivezdrowy, ciekawy
adverb adv positive form dobrze, bardzo
non-3rd person pronoun ppron12 singular nominative ja
3rd-person pronoun ppron3 singular nominative on
pronoun siebie siebie accusative siebie
non-past form fin infinitive czytać
future być bedzie infinitive być
agglutinate być aglt infinitive być
l-participle praet infinitive czytać
imperative impt infinitive czytać
impersonal imps infinitive czytać
infinitive inf infinitive czytać
contemporary adv. participlepcon infinitive czytać
anterior adv. participle pant infinitive czytać
gerund ger infinitive czytać
active adj. participle pact infinitive czytać
passive adj. participle ppas infinitive czytać
winien winien singular masculine form powinien, rad
predicative pred the only form of that flexeme warto
preposition prep the non-vocalic form of that flexeme na, przez, w
coordinating conjunction conj the only form of that flexeme oraz
subordinating conjunction comp the only form of that flexeme że
particle-adverb qub the only form of that flexeme nie, -że, się
abbreviation brev the full dictionary form rok, i tak dalej
bound word burk the only form of that flexeme trochu, oścież
interjection interj the only form of that flexeme ech, kurde
punctuation interp the only form of that flexeme ;, ., (, ]
alien xxx the only form of that flexeme cool , nihil
unknown form ign the only form of that flexeme